When you want to decide on the best topology in computer network, I would say you should think of the place you want to establish the network and what you want to do with the network. The best topology in computer network is the one that will help fulfill the need of the network.
That said, there are basically five types of topologies. All of them have merits and demerits that you can use to determine what will suit the purpose you want the network to perform.
All the devices on this network are connected together. i.e., if you have 10 devices on the network, each device will be connected to the other 9 devices. This is the most reliable network topology.
The merit of this topology is that you will have a dedicated connection between all devices. If any of the 9 routes fails, another route will be used.
The demerit is that you will need more cables to connect all the devices together.
This one is different from mesh in the sense that instead of connecting all the devices together, you will connect them to a central device like switch.
All communications on the network will pass through this central device before it gets to its destination. If you ask which network topology is the cheapest I would say it is star topology and with that, you can say it is the best network topology for small business.
The merit here is that you can add more devices or computer to the network easily. Just connect the device to the network and you are ready to go.
The only one but (Demerit) with a star topology:
The whole network will be down when the central device stop working. So the only work you have here is to keep the central device up and running all the time.
All the devices on this topology will be connected together using a single cable. This single cable is referred to as the backbone of the network.
From this simple explanation of bus topology, you can deduce that it requires less cable compared to other topologies. And when any part of the cable (backbone) breaks, the entire network will be down.
Every device on this topology is connected to two other devices and at the end, all the devices or nodes will have a single path of communication.
The rate of packet collision is very low in ring topology because there is only one path for all the data to pass through. And the data go from one device to another at high speed.
When any of the device or node on this topology is down, all the remaining nodes will be down.
This topology is not a standard one like any of the above topologies but it gives the opportunity of combining two or more topologies together to suit your needs. It can be the best network topology for a large business.
To bring everything to an end:
If you need a very reliable topology that is one part of the network stops working, the network will still be fine. I would go for mesh topology. And when you are thinking of cost and some taste or reliability then you should stick with star topology.
But the real truth is that as a network technician you don’t really have the best topology. The only thing you have is the best topology that will cater for the need of the users.